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Satellite antenna principle

Number of visits: Date:2018-03-12
The satellite television receiving system is composed of a parabolic antenna, a feed, a high-frequency head, and a satellite receiver to form a complete satellite receiving station.
 
    1. A parabolic antenna converges the reflection of the sky's satellite signal energy into one focus.
    2. The feed is to set a horn at the focal point of the parabolic antenna, known as the feed, which means the source of the feed energy. All the energy that will gather in the focus is collected. The feed forward satellite receiving antenna basically uses a large angle corrugated feed.
    3, the high frequency head (LNB also known as down converter) is to send the satellite signal from the feed for down-conversion and signal amplification and then transmitted to the satellite receiver. The lower the noise figure of the tuner, the better.
    4. The satellite receiver demodulates the satellite signals transmitted from the high-frequency head to demodulate satellite television image signals and audio signals.
Polarization of satellite broadcast television signals.
There are four polarization methods for satellite television signals: right-hand circular polarization, left-hand circular polarization, vertical polarization and horizontal polarization. Since the first two polarizations are not commonly used, only the vertical polarization (V) and horizontal polarization (H) reception methods will be introduced.
The vertical and horizontal polarizations are received by changing the direction of the rectangular (rectangular) waveguide of the feed to determine whether the received vertical or horizontal polarization is received. When the long side of the rectangular waveguide port is parallel to the ground, vertical polarization is received. Received horizontally when it is perpendicular to the ground. The polarization direction (polarization angle) varies from place to place. Because the earth is a sphere, the downlink beam of the satellite signal is a horizontal straight line, which results in different azimuths. The same polarization signal received is different, so the geographic location is different, and the polarization direction of the received signal is also biased. The long waveguide (polarization direction) of the feed will not be exactly vertical or horizontal to the ground. This should be taken into account when adjusting the polarization direction.
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